BRICS Law Journal

Advanced search

Gender Discrimination in Employment: BRICS Countries Overview

Full Text:


This article investigates the phenomenon of gender equality in employment in the BRICS countries where it is one of the factors hampering the economic development and basic human rights. The authors examine the international obligations of these states under the human rights treaties of the United Nations Organization (UNO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO), compare the national anti-discriminatory norms with the international standards (ILO Conventions and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women) and evaluate the observations of the relevant international bodies recently adopted in respect of the BRICS states. In particular, the activities of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women and the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations are reviewed. In the paragraphs that follow, the national legislation and case-laws are examined. Furthermore, the reasons for the persistent gender stereotypes in the labor market, as well as the general attitude toward women’s roles in society in each country are reviewed. The authors identify the obstacles to achieving true gender equality in the workplace and formulate recommendations for improving protections against discrimination of women in employment as well as ensuring equal access to employment and promotion.

About the Authors

E. Sychenko
Saint Petersburg State University
Russian Federation

Elena Sychenko – Associate Professor, Law Faculty

7 22nd Line of Vasilievsky Island, Saint Petersburg, 199106

M. Laruccia
Jorge Duprat Figueiredo Foundation for Safety and Occupational Health at Work (Fundacentro) and Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo

Mauro Laruccia  – Associate Professor of Business, School of Economics, Business and Accounting

710 Capote Valente St., São Paulo, 05409-002

D. Cusciano
Jorge Duprat Figueiredo Foundation for Safety and Occupational Health at Work (Fundacentro) and Getúlio Vargas Foundation

Dalton Cusciano  – PhD Candidate, Getúlio Vargas Foundation, Adjunct Professor,

710 Capote Valente St., São Paulo, 05409-002

R. Korde
FLAME University

Rupa Korde  – Assistant Professor

Gat No. 1270, Lavale, Off. Pune Bangalore Hwy., Pune, Maharashtra, 412115

K. Nagadia
WageIndicator Foundation

Kabir Nagadia  – Data Analyst, WageIndicator Foundation

Gat No. 1270, Lavale, Off. Pune Bangalore Hwy., Pune, Maharashtra, 412115

I. Chikireva
Tyumen State University
Russian Federation

Irina Chikireva  – Associate Professor, Department of Civil Law Disciplines

38 Lenina St., Tyumen, 625000

J. Wang
Jilin University

Jiaojiao Wang  – Lecturer, Jilin University

2699 Qianjin St., Chaoyang, Changchun, Jilin, China; e-mail: 

N. Carrim
University of Pretoria
South Africa

Nasima Carrim  – Associate Professor,

Dr Savage Rd., Prinshof 349-Jr, Pretoria, 0084


1. Albertyn C. “The Stubborn Persistence of Patriarchy”? Gender Equality and Cultural Diversity in South Africa, 2(1) Const. Court Rev. 165 (2009).

2. Altonji J.G. & Blank R.M. Race and Gender in the Labor Market in Handbook of Labor Economics 3143 (Orley C. Ashenfelter & Richard Layard eds., 1999).

3. Atrey S. & Pillai G. A Feminist Rewriting of Air India v Nergesh Meerza AIR 1981 SC 1829: Proposal for a Test of Discrimination Under Article 15(1), 5(3) Indian L. Rev. 338 (2021).

4. Boston T.D. Segmented Labor Markets: New Evidence from aStudy of Four Race-Gender Groups, 44(1) ILR Rev. 99 (1990).

5. Carrim N.M.H. Sandwiched Between Groups: Upward Career Experiences of South African Indian Women, 52(1) S. Afr. J. Bus. Mgmt. (2021).

6. Cavalcanti T. & Tavares J. The Output Cost of Gender Discrimination: AModel-Based Macroeconomics Estimate, 126(590) Econ. J. 109 (2016).

7. Chudinovskikh M. & Tonkikh N. Telework in BRICS: Legal, Gender and Cultural Aspects, 7(4) BRICS L.J. 45 (2020).

8. Coelho D.J.S.S. et al. The Situation of Women in BRIC Countries: AComparative Analysis of the (in) Effectiveness of Public Policies for the Protection of Women and Reduction of Gender Inequality in the Four Largest Emerging Economies in the World, 5(1) UNIO – EU L.J. 121 (2019).

9. Dessler D. & Varkkey B. Human Resource Management (15th ed. 2018).

10. Dunlop J.T. The Task of Contemporary Wage Theory in The Theory of Wage Determination 3 (John T. Dunlop ed., 1957).

11. Fang T. Judicial Practice and System Improvement on Discrimination Against Marriage and Childbirth in Recruitment, 31(1) J. China Women’s U. 41 (2019).

12. Fernandez C.G. & Puyana D.F. The BRICS Commitment in the Promotion of Equality Between Women and Men: Analysis from the Human Rights and Peace Perspective, 1(1) BRICS L.J. 5 (2014).

13. Kilbourne B. et al. Returns to Skill, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men, 100(3) Am. J. Soc. 689 (1994).

14. Kizilova K. & Mosakova E. The Birth Rate in BRICS Countries Under the Gender Inequality in the Labor Market, 19(4) RUDN J. Soc. 630 (2019).

15. Kotiswaran P. Labours in Vice or Virtue? Neo-Liberalism, Sexual Commerce, and the Case of Indian Bar Dancing, 37(1) J. L. & Soc. 105 (2010).

16. Lalthapersad-Pillay P. Gender Influences in the Labour Market: The Case of BRICS, 5(10) Mediterranean J. Soc. Sci. 155 (2014).

17. Morcom A. The Cure Is Worse Than the Disease: Mumbai Dance Bars, and New Forms of Justice in the History of Female Public Performers in India, 14(4) Cultural & Soc. Hist. 499 (2017).

18. Nihila M. Marginalisation of Women Workers: Leather Tanning Industry in Tamil Nadu, 34(16/17) Econ. & Pol. Wkly WS21 (1990).

19. Osinubi T. & Asongu S. Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS Countries, 48(6) J. Econ. Stud. 1177 (2020).

20. Ramakrishnan D. Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplaces: Legal Safeguards and Preventive Mechanisms in India, 6(2) Int’l J. Res. & Analytical Rev. 724 (2019).

21. Vyas-Doorgapersad S. Designing Measurement Instruments for Sustainable Development Goals One, Five and Nine: A Gendered Perspective in South Africa, 10(3) Afr. J. Public Aff. 118 (2018).

22. Wang X. Administrative Enforcement Mechanism in China’s Employment Discrimination Law, 2 Sci. L. 153 (2021).


For citations:

Sychenko E., Laruccia M., Cusciano D., Korde R., Nagadia K., Chikireva I., Wang J., Carrim N. Gender Discrimination in Employment: BRICS Countries Overview. BRICS Law Journal. 2022;9(2):30-71.

Views: 898

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2409-9058 (Print)
ISSN 2412-2343 (Online)