Preview

BRICS Law Journal

Advanced search

THE LEVEL CYBERSECURITY OF THE BRICS MEMBER COUNTRIES IN INTERNATIONAL RATINGS: PROSPECTS FOR COOPERATION

https://doi.org/10.21684/2412-2343-2023-10-1-

Abstract

Creating a legal foundation for cybersecurity is a key factor in the digitalization of the economy. The digital transformation of the interaction between the BRICS member countries increases the efficiency of economic cooperation and the growing influence of these countries in the international arena. The purpose of the present study is to determine the potential of the BRICS to form a joint cybersecurity strategy. The authors put forward a hypothesis that the formation of an effective cybersecurity system is possible only with a sufficient level of development of information and communication technologies and a high degree of digitalization of interstate governance.

 The scientific novelty of the research lies in a complex approach to the scientific and theoretical analysis of the problems of ensuring the cybersecurity in the BRICS member countries, based on which the common areas for cooperation. The research methodology is based on establishing a correlation between the indicators of e-government development and the criteria for state cybersecurity, and subsequent comparative analysis. As a quantitative indicator, the authors use the data of the E-Government Development BRICS member countries from 2010 to 2018. The level of maturity of the national cybersecurity system is reflected in the rating of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Based on the ITU rating, we assess the cybersecurity efficiency of BRICS member countries versus other countries. According to the research results, we conclude that the premises for achieving a high level of cybersecurity are state control over cyberspace and the availability of a national strategy.

About the Authors

Oksana V/. Ovchinnikova
National Research South Ural State University
Russian Federation

Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, the Department of Judicial and Law Enforcement Activities, Institute of Law, South Ural State University



NITEESH KUMAR UPADHYAY
Symbiosis Law School, Noida
India

Ph.D, Associate Professor, Symbiosis Law School, Noida



References

1. Bruijn, H. & Janssen, M. Building Cybersecurity Awareness: The need for evidence-based framing strategies. Government Information Quarterly, 34(1), 1-7, (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2017.02.007

2. Burak, A. & Barış, D. Analysis of the Cyber Security Strategies of People’s Republic of China, Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 14 (28), 1-35 (2018).

3. Chandel, S.&Jingji, Z.& Yunnan, Y.& Jingyao, S.& Zhi-peng, Z. The Golden Shield Project of China: A Decade Later An in-depth study of the Great Firewall, International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC), 111-119 (2019).https://doi: 10.1109/CyberC.2019.00027.

4. Goodman M. D. & Brenner S. W., The Emerging Consensus on Criminal Conduct in Cyberspace, available at https://uclajolt.com/home/Articles/2002/03_020625_goodmanbrenner.pdf

5. Górka, М. The Cybersecurity Strategy of the Visegrad Group Countries. Politics in Central Europe, 14 ( 2), 75-98 (2018) DOI: 10.2478/pce-2018-0010

6. Kadlecova L., Russian-Speaking Cyber Crime: Reasons behind its Success, 2 European Review of Organised Crime 104 (2015), available at https://standinggroups.ecpr.eu/sgoc/russian-speaking-cyber-crime-reasons-behind-its-success/

7. Khanna, P. State sovereignty and self-defence in cyberspace. BRICS Law Journal, 5(4), 139-154(2018). https://doi.org/10.21684/2412-2343-2018-5-4-139-154

8. Kortjan N., A Cyber Security Awareness and Education Framework for South Africa, available at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/145053774.pdf

9. Lee S., International Reactions to U.S. Cybersecurity Policy: The BRICS undersea cable, University of Washington (Jan. 8, 2016), available at https://jsis.washington.edu/news/reactions-u-s-cybersecurity-policy-bric-undersea-cable/

10. Liu, M. BRICS development: a long way to a powerful economic club and new international organization, The Pacific Review, 443-453 (2016), DOI: 10.1080/09512748.2016.1154688

11. Machín, N. & Gazapo, M. (2016). Cybersecurity as a critical factor for the security of the European Union. Revista UNISCI, 2016(42), 47-68. https://doi.org/10.5209/RUNI.53786

12. Markopoulou, D., Papakonstantinou, V., & de Hert, P. The new EU cybersecurity framework: The NIS Directive, ENISA’s role and the General Data Protection Regulation. Computer Law and Security Review, 35(6) 1-11 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clsr.2019.06.007

13. Mawela T. & Ochara N.M. & Twinomurinzi H.. Е-Government implementation: A reflection on South African Municipalities. South African Computer Journal, 29(1), 147-171. (2017). https://doi.org/10.18489/sacj.v29i1.444

14. Mawela, T. & Ochara, N. M. &Twinomurinzi, H. Е-Government implementation: A reflection on South African Municipalities. South African Computer Journal, 29(1), 147-171. (2017). https://dx.doi.org/10.18489/sacj.v29i1.444

15. Mitrovic, Z. & Thakur, C. Positioning South Africa in the BRICS cybersecurity context: A strategic perspective? 14th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security,. 251-259 (2019) https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85066033682&partnerID=40&md5=75ff0297b2beca26b9ec1461d4e55a20

16. Mohanty, S. P.& Ramaswamy, R.&Duraiappah, A. K. On the Design of a Youth-Led, Issue-Based, Crowdsourced Global Monitoring Framework for the SDGs, Sustainability 11 (23), 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236839

17. Moraes F,, Whither R. Security Cooperation in the BRICS? Between the Protection of Norms and Domestic Politic s Dynamics (June 21, 2020), Global Policy, 2020, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3632389 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3632389

18. Napetvaridze, V. & Chochia, A. Cybersecurity in the Making – Policy and Law: a Case Study of Georgia. International and Comparative Law Review, 2019, 19 (2), 155–180 (2019) https://doi.org/10.2478/iclr-2019-0019.

19. Nikitin, E. & Marius, M. Unified Digital Law Enforcement Environment – Necessity and Prospects for Creation in the «BRICS member countries», BRICs law Journal, 7(2), 66–93 (2020). https://doi.org/10.21684/2412-2343-2020-7-2-66-93

20. Ning S.X. & Wu H. China: Cybersecurity Laws and Regulations, ICLG (Nov. 02, 2020), available at https://iclg.com/practice-areas/cybersecurity-laws-and-regulations/china

21. Polatin-Reuben, D. & Joss, W. An Internet with BRICS Characteristics: Data Sovereignty and the Balkanisation of the Internet. In 4th Workshop on Free and Open Communications on the Internet (august 18, 2014) https://www.usenix.org/conference/foci14/workshop-program/presentation/polatin-reuben

22. Samion, N. A. & Mohamed, A. Innovation of national digital identity: A review International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9 (1.2 Special Issue), 151-159 (2020) DOI: 10.30534/IJATCSE/2020/2391.22020

23. Sharada P. Mohanty & Rajiv Ramaswamy & Anantha K. Duraiappah, On the Design of a Youth-Led, Issue-Based, Crowdsourced Global Monitoring Framework for the SDGs, Sustainability 11 (23), 2019.

24. Singh, S., &Travica, B. E-Government systems in South Africa: An infoculture perspective. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 84(4), 2018. https://doi.org/10.1002/isd2.12030

25. Song, Z.& Wang, C.& Bergmann, L. China’s prefectural digital divide: Spatial analysis and multivariate determinants of ICT diffusion, International Journal of Information Management,52, 102072 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102072.

26. Stevens T., Global cybersecurity: new directions in theory and methods. Politics and Governance. Cogitation Press. 6 (2), 1-4 (2018) https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v6i2.1569

27. Taye B., Internet shutdowns in 2019: A global overview, available at https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2020/02/KeepItOn-2019-report-1.pdf

28. Thakur, S., & Singh, S. A study of some e-Government activities in South Africa. African Journal of Computing & ICT, 6(2), 41–54 (2013). available at https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.975.9575&rep=rep1&type=pdf

29. Tomar S., National Cyber Security Policy 2013: An Assessment, IDSA ( Aug. 26, 2013), available at https://idsa.in/idsacomments/NationalCyberSecurityPolicy2013_stomar_260813

30. Vakulyk, O. & Petrenko, P. &Kuzmenko, I. & Pochtovy, M. & Orlovsky, R. Cybersecurity as a component of the national security of the state, Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 9 (3), 775-784 (2020). https://doi.org/10.9770/JSSI.2020.9.3(4)

31. Niekerk, B. V. The cyber security dilemma: A South African perspective. In 14th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, ICCWS, 441–447 (2019).

32. Wanglai, G. BRICS Cybersecurity Cooperation: Achievements and Deepening Paths China International Studies (Jan 20, 2018) https://www.pressreader.com/china/china-international-studies-english/20180120/ 281513636564 569

33. Yuan, L.& Xi, C.Xiaoyi, W. Evaluating the readiness of government portal websites in China to adopt contemporary public administration principles, Government Information Quarterly, 29 (3), 403-412 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2011.12.009.


Review

For citations:


Ovchinnikova O.V., UPADHYAY N.K. THE LEVEL CYBERSECURITY OF THE BRICS MEMBER COUNTRIES IN INTERNATIONAL RATINGS: PROSPECTS FOR COOPERATION. BRICS Law Journal. 2023;10(1). https://doi.org/10.21684/2412-2343-2023-10-1-

Views: 378


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2409-9058 (Print)
ISSN 2412-2343 (Online)
X